【上】印度新德里的空氣污染達到了難以忍受的程度,相當于每天吸33支煙
2019-11-07 阿煌看什么 23172
原文地址
原文地址:https://www.reddit.com/r/worldnews/comments/dr5d9r/indias_new_delhi_hits_unbearable_pollution_levels/
正文翻譯
原創翻譯:龍騰網 http://www.ltaaa.com 翻譯:阿煌看什么 轉載請注明出處



Air pollution in New Delhi and surrounding towns has reached the worst levels so far this year, with authorities in the capital having declared a public health emergency and ordered the closure of schools.

今年以來,新德里及周邊城鎮的空氣污染已達到最嚴重的水平,首都當局已宣布進入公共衛生緊急狀態,并下令關閉學校。

The air quality index (AQI), measuring levels of PM 2.5 — tiny particulate matter in the air — deteriorated to above 900, way over the 500-level that qualifies as "severe-plus" on Sunday.an app that uses pollution data to explain air quality via cigarette smoking — found that the Indian capital''s present air quality was akin to smoking 33.2 cigarettes per day.Aside from the harm it was doing to the lungs of some 40 million people living in the capital region, the smog was so bad more than 30 flights were diverted from Delhi airport due to poor visibility.

空氣質量指數(AQI) ,測量pm2.5(空氣中的微小顆粒物)的水平,已經惡化到900以上,遠遠超過了周日的500水平。一款利用污染數據通過吸煙解釋空氣質量的應用程序發現,印度首都目前的空氣質量與每天吸煙33.2支相當。

Roads looked deserted as large numbers of people stayed home, rather than expose themselves to the noxious atmosphere outside.

除了對生活在首都地區的大約4000萬人的肺部造成傷害外,霧霾非常嚴重,由于能見度低,超過30架航班從德里機場轉飛。道路看起來空無一人,因為許多人呆在家里,而不愿暴露在外面有毒的空氣中。

"Pollution has reached unbearable levels across north India," Arvind Kejriwal, Delhi''s chief minister wrote on Twitter.

“整個印度北部的污染已經達到了難以忍受的程度,”德里首席部長阿爾文德 · 凱杰里瓦爾在推特上寫道。



Delhi has turned into a gas chamber as the pollution levels hit the severe category," Mr Taparia said.

“隨著污染水平達到嚴重程度,德里已經變成了一個毒氣室,”塔帕里亞先生說。

A survey of 17,000 people in the Delhi region by his consultancy found that 40 per cent want to get out of the area because of the failure to control pollution.

他的咨詢公司對德里地區1.7萬人進行的一項調查發現,由于未能控制污染,40% 的人希望離開該地區。



Authorities in Delhi on Friday declared a public health emergency and closed schools and all construction activity.

德里當局周五宣布進入公共衛生緊急狀態,并關閉了學校和所有建筑活動。

From Monday, the city government will also restrict the use of private vehicles on the capital''s roads under an "odd-even" scheme based on license plates.

從下周一開始,市政府還將實施一項基于車牌的“單雙”計劃,限制在首都道路上的私家車。



Politicians have been reluctant to upset their farming constituencies.
According to SAFAR, satellite pictures had captured more than 3,000 incidents of stubble burning last week in neighbouring states, contributing to 44 per cent of Delhi''s pollution.

根據 SAFAR 的數據,衛星圖像顯示,上周鄰近邦發生了3000多起焚燒麥茬的事件,占到了新德里污染的44% 。
評論翻譯
原創翻譯:龍騰網 http://www.ltaaa.com 翻譯:阿煌看什么 轉載請注明出處

skeebidybp
I was surprised to learn that >70% of the cities with the worst air pollution in the world are actually in India (as of 2018)

我驚訝地發現,世界上空氣污染最嚴重的城市中,有70%實際上是發生在印度(截至2018年)。

padjune999
What if I told you Asian coastal countries contribute over 90% of the oceans waste and plastic debris each year? But no one talks about that or looks at them.

如果我告訴你亞洲沿海國家每年貢獻超過90% 的海洋廢棄物和塑料垃圾,你會怎樣想?但是沒有人談論這些,也沒有人注意它們。

in_the_bumbum
People do all the time, we just don''t have power over them.

人們總是這樣做,我們只是沒有權力控制他們。

scootscoot
Ocean Cleanup just introduced a river cleanup system like a week ago. They’re doing real work! Already have 4 systems deployed!

大約一周前,海洋清理公司剛剛引入了一個河流清理系統。 他們真的在做事!已經部署了4個系統!

xtrabubbles
That''s silly, no powerful country is going to sanction another country for ocean waste.

這是愚蠢的,沒有一個強大的國家會因為海洋垃圾而制裁另一個國家。

Dawsonpc14
Maybe they should?

也許他們應該這么做?



CFSohard
Not to mention that millions of metric tons of ''recycled'' plastic waste from the US are just exported to other countries to be thrown out/ burned. SOURCE

更不用說從美國回收的數百萬噸塑料垃圾,只是出口到其他國家扔掉或焚燒。

alluran
What are you talking about. Clean coal is the future!

你在說什么,清潔煤才是未來!

ChadAdonis
No one talks about it much because the US is still the worst polluter on a per capita basis.

沒有多少人談論這個問題,因為按人均計算,美國仍是污染最嚴重的國家。

CheatersRpus
What if I told you that the western countries send their waste to dumped into to Asian countries, which in turn dump it in ocean or burn it. Waste management is not solved for the world if you ship out yours to others.

如果我告訴你,西方國家把他們的垃圾運到亞洲國家,然后這些國家又把它們倒進海里或者燒掉。 如果你把自己的垃圾運給別人處理,世界上的垃圾管理問題就不會得到解決。

-0-O-
They''ve set fields on fire for centuries and it was never a problem. Now that the law says they can''t start their grow season until 2 months later, (and therefor can''t harvest until 2 months later, after wind direction changes), it''s a problem.

幾個世紀以來,他們一直在放火焚燒麥茬,這一直很常見。 現在法律規定他們在兩個月后他們才能開始種植(因此,直到兩個月后,風向改變后才能收獲) ,這就成了問題。

routerg0d
Probably because the majority of the population is completely unaware how bad it is for them.

可能是因為大多數人完全沒有意識到這對他們來說是多么糟糕。

n00bi3s
And most of them are in or around Delhi.

他們中的大多數都在德里或德里附近。

green_flash
While China is also bad on the PM2.5, the current situation in New Delhi and surrounding area is just otherworldly, with levels four times as high as even the worst indicators from China.

雖然中國的 PM2.5水平也很糟糕,但新德里及周邊地區目前的情況簡直超乎想象,PM2.5水平甚至是中國最糟糕指標的四倍。

lobehold
India will be the first country to perform auto-economic asphyxiation.

印度將成為第一個實施“自動經濟窒息法”的國家。

thecapent
Given the size of New Delhi population, I wonder if the economic gains of such lousy pollution standards can offset the expenses on healthcare and loss of worker productivity.

考慮到新德里的人口規模,我想知道如此糟糕的污染標準所帶來的經濟收益能否抵消醫療費用和工人生產力的損失。

imbagels
Unfortunately, that''s exactly how most of this city is functioning

不幸的是,這個城市的大部分地方就是這樣運作的



flexibledoorstop
They don''t just burn out of ignorance or laziness. Tilling is more expensive - you need a tractor and specialized equipment to clear a field. Tilling also causes more soil erosion and does not control pests/pathogens as effectively as burning. So farmers would also have to spend more on soil amendment and pesticides to maintain yields.
No question they need to switch to tilling, but it''s going to take significant financial assistance to get there. Small family farms don''t benefit from economies of scale. Consolidation and cooperatives would help.

他們不僅僅是因為無知或懶惰而焚燒。耕作更加昂貴,你需要一臺拖拉機和專門的設備來清理一塊田地。耕作也會導致更多的土壤侵蝕,并且不像焚燒那樣有效地控制害蟲 / 病原體。因此,農民也必須花費更多的土壤改良劑和殺蟲劑來維持產量。
毫無疑問,他們需要轉向耕作,但這需要大量的財政援助才能實現。小型家庭農場無法從規模經濟中獲益。合并和合作將會有所幫助。

jeffala
The same thing is done here in the US in heavy rice-producing areas. I bet that it''s worse there, but it''s still bad here.

同樣的事情也發生在美國大米產量高的地區。 我打賭那里的情況更糟糕,但印度這里還是很糟糕。

Snickersthecat
That sounds like some literal dystopian hell. I can''t imagine working in that environment.

這聽起來像是真正的反烏托邦地獄,我無法想象在那樣的環境中工作。

02C_here
I’m in Gurugram at the moment. Not as bad as New Delhi, but bad. What’s really weird is there is an active anti smoking campaign. Was watching a movie in the hotel and an actor was smoking. They had dubbed in “smoking kills” right on top of the movie while it was on screen.
And there are PSAs against smoking almost every commercial.
But hey - lets go outside and set our rice fields on fire....

我現在在古魯格拉姆。不像新德里那么糟糕,但也很糟糕。 真正奇怪的是有一個積極的反吸煙運動。我在旅館里看電影,一個演員在抽煙。他們在電影放映時在電影的正上方配上了“吸煙致死”的音效。
幾乎所有的廣告都有反對吸煙的公益廣告。
但是,嘿,讓我們去外面,放火燒我們的稻田...

eats_the_pasta
It''s very sad and wrong that they burn stubble. Honestly when one lives hand to mouth one cannot afford to think about the environment.

他們焚燒麥茬是非常可悲且錯誤的。老實說,當一個人只能勉強糊口時,他就不會考慮環境問題。

hpresent
At $8 a pack that would save me about $25 a day.

每包煙8美元,每天可以為我省下25美元。



eats_the_pasta
How people see India is dependent on quite a few things.
most importantly, where in India you live
amount of money you have
your education
your profession (this also dictates how much power and respect you have, generally)
your parent''s profession

人們如何看待印度取決于很多因素。
最重要的是你住在印度的什么地方
你有多少錢
你的教育
你的職業(這也決定了你一般擁有多少權力和尊重)
你父母的職業

andrew_kirfman
Sounds a whole lot like the US.

聽起來很像美國。

S3RLF4N
Sounds a whole lot like any country

聽起來很像任何一個國家

toastymow
India is a beautiful place. It has a long, proud, rich, diverse history. From prehistory, to modern times, all across the nation, there is so much to see and learn and its a great place. The economy is growing rapidly and there is an emergent, urban, cosmopolitan, middle class in the major cities.
But India is also a terrible country. The politics are violent, messy, and corrupt. Justice for the poor and working class is scant, the legal system is highly corrupt. Basic services are still sometimes lacking in poor and rural communities. They are only just starting to get toilets everywhere, etc.
It''s really just about how you want to look at India, and what you want to focus on.

印度是個美麗的地方。 它有著悠久、自豪、豐富、多樣的歷史。從史前時代到現代,在整個國家,有這么多的東西可以看可以學習,這是一個偉大的地方。 經濟增長迅速,主要城市涌現出一批新興、城市化和國際化的中產階級。
但是印度也是一個可怕的國家。 政治是暴力,混亂,腐敗的。窮人和工人階級得不到公正,法律體系高度腐敗。貧窮和農村社區有時仍然缺乏基本服務。 他們才剛剛開始到處建廁所,等等。
這只是關于你想如何看待印度,以及你想關注什么。

StoopidN00b
Do people there do anything to try and mitigate the harm to them? Like wear those masks or anything? Do those even help?

那里的人們有做什么來嘗試減輕對他們的傷害嗎? 比如戴口罩什么的? 這些做法有幫助嗎?

Dokramuh
Reducing PM pollution into your lungs by 95% is a big deal.

減少95%的顆粒污染進入你的肺是一件大事。

vanillamasala
I live in India right now and currently visiting Delhi (yay, great timing). School is closed to protect the children and the news channels are warning people to stay indoors, or to wear masks, especially if they have respiratory issues. That being said, I was outside all day yesterday and most people I saw were not wearing masks, including myself. My throat is definitely a little hoarse, but no major complaints (yet) and I think that the smog may be collected more in certain places, but you can see a faint brown haze ahead of you all over the place, but you won’t notice it right around you most of the time.

我現在住在印度,目前正在訪問德里(耶,真TM是個好時機)。為了保護孩子們,學校已經關閉,新聞頻道警告人們呆在室內,或者戴口罩,特別是如果他們有呼吸問題。話雖如此,我昨天一整天都在外面,我看到的大多數人都沒有戴面具,包括我自己。我的喉嚨肯定有點嘶啞,但感覺無大礙,我想煙霧可能會在某些地方聚集得更多,但是你可以看到你前面的所有地方都有微弱的棕色煙霧,但是大多數時候你不會注意到它就在你身邊周圍。

redditsucksbut
Why are you not wearing a mask and outside? You like the idea of having cancer?

你為什么不戴口罩出門?你喜歡得癌癥嗎?



sophon_
That''s not remotely true. We''re just too dumb to vote for the right ones.

這根本不是真的,我們只是太笨了,沒有為正確的人投票。

partypooper14
Well, when they themselves start getting sick they will start caring.

當他們自己開始生病的時候,他們就會開始關心。

lexicon993
Voting isn''t going to make smog go away.
You have entirely too many people in too small of a space. India''s population growth has exploded century after century.
There needs to be a curb on population growth. People need to stop having large families generation after generation.
Culturally, one of the only options for a woman is to get married and have children. They need to encourage a possibility of just living life independently.
But no, keep talking about policies and recycling and air cleaning while the population booms.
It''s a people problem. You cannot fit that many people in that small a space and continue to reproduce and reproduce and reproduce. No matter what you do in terms of eco-friendly behaviors.
The pollution problems will continue so long as the population continues to expand. No matter what you do to curb pollution.

投票不會讓煙霧消失。
你的空間太小了,人太多了。 印度的人口一個世紀又一個世紀地呈爆炸式增長。
需要控制人口增長。人們需要停止生育一代又一代的大家庭。
從文化上講,女人唯一的選擇就是結婚生子。他們需要鼓勵獨立生活的可能性。
但是,不,在人口激增的時候,還繼續談論政策、回收利用和空氣凈化。
這是人的問題。 你不可能在那么小的空間里容納那么多人,繼續繁殖、繁殖、繁殖。無論你在環保方面做了什么。
只要人口繼續增長,污染問題就會繼續存在。無論你做什么來控制污染。

sophon_
Population control is easier said than done. Policy makers still have PTSD from China''s one child rule.

人口控制說起來容易做起來難。 政策制定者仍然因為中國的獨生子女政策而患有創傷后應激障礙。

MotherGrass
India''s birth rate is already near or at population replacement level.

印度的出生率已經接近或處于人口更替水平。

Daryl221
Yeah, over 250 years since the industrial revolution, and you''d think we''d have learned our lesson.

是的,自工業革命以來已經250多年了,你可能會認為我們已經吸取了教訓。

phernoree
Except the majority of this pollution is from stubble burning, not industry.

除此之外,這些污染大部分來自于茬子的焚燒,而不是工業。

NotMyHersheyBar
India skipped an industrial revolution. They adopted technology from the rest of the world without going through the steps of developing it inside their country. It did great things for their economy, industry, educational system, and quality of life (for people in the cities, and it''s slowly trickling out to the rural areas). But that means that some initiatives and developmental steps were left behind, like clean energy and recycling and clean air.

印度跳過了一場工業革命。 他們采用了世界其他國家的技術,而沒有經過在國內開發的步驟。這步驟為他們的經濟、工業、教育體系和生活質量做出了巨大的貢獻(對于城市里的人們來說,它正慢慢滲透到農村地區)。 但這意味著一些倡議和發展步驟被拋在了后面,比如清潔能源、循環利用和清潔空氣。

bleepbo0p
You do realize that during the period you call "The industrial revolution" India was de-industrialized by the British and turned into a farming economy. So instead of continuing industrializing with a population of 160 million they have had to do it from the ground up with a population of a billion. If the "West" could mind it''s own business it would be great thanks.

你應該知道,在你所謂的“工業革命”時期,印度被英國人去工業化,變成了農業經濟。 因此,他們不是以一億六千萬人口從頭開始工業化,而是以十億人口從頭開始。 如果“西方”能管好自己的事,那就太感謝了。



geft_at_work
Nah, they get lung cancer instead.

不,他們不是鐵肺而是肺癌。

definitelynotabotact
Was in New Delhi around the same burning season a couple of years ago, a couple of American tourists were waiting outside the hotel for a shuttle to take them somewhere. After standing 15 minutes outside, about half of them had trouble breathing and an older lady passed out.
It surprises me that no nation posts a travel warning (at least for older travellers) to not travel to India during the field burning season.

幾年前,在新德里的同一個燃燒土地的季節,一對美國游客在酒店外面等候接送他們的班車。 在外面站了15分鐘后,大約一半的人呼吸困難,一位年長的女士昏過去了。
令我吃驚的是,沒有一個國家發布旅行警告(至少對于老年旅行者) ,禁止他們在燃燒土地的季節前往印度。

OcotilloWells
How does higher humidity make it worse? I would have thought the rain would have cleared some of the particulates out of the air, but the article only says it added to the humidity, making it worse.

更高的濕度是如何使污染變得更糟的?我本以為大雨會清除空氣中的一些微粒,但文章只是說大雨增加了濕度,使情況更糟。
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